Wednesday, 26 July 2017

Terahertz Spectroscopy Applications in Medicament Analysis

Sulovská, Kateřina. "Terahertz Spectroscopy Applications in Medicament Analysis." In International Conference on Applied Physics, System Science and Computers, pp. 45-50. Springer, Cham, 2017.

Terahertz spectroscopy came to the attention of the broader scientific community in the 90s of the 20th century with the development of science and technology in particular, enabling to work in terahertz spectral region. Terahertz spectroscopy has a wide possibilities of applications beginning in classical spectroscopy of gun powders, plastics, explosives, liquids, through terahertz imaging of medicaments, tissues, materials or layers, to remote observation/identification of hidden objects mainly for security purposes. The aim of this paper is to introduce possible applications in analysis of pharmaceuticals with different amount of active ingredient content. According to the results, the classical terahertz spectroscopy is not as suitable as other spectroscopic methods targeted on analyzing content of pharmaceuticals showing persistent inconveniences of this spectroscopy. All measurements were done using the TPS Spectra 3000 instrument.

for full paper see

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Monday, 17 July 2017

UK/Europe-China Workshop on Millimetre-Waves and Terahertz Technologies (UCMMT) 2017

TeraView will be attending the 10th UK/Europe-China Workshop on Millimetre-Waves and Terahertz Technologies (UCMMT) 2017 - which will be held at Marriott Hotel in the city centre of Liverpool between 11-13 September 2017.

We look forward to meeting you at the conference.

For more details see

Tuesday, 13 June 2017

Terahertz applications scientist for sales and development at TeraView

TeraView Ltd is the world’s first and leading provider of terahertz solutions to Fortune 500 companies, in a variety of industries. TeraView was created in 2001 from a relationship between the Toshiba Corporation and the Cavendish Laboratory at the University Cambridge. TeraView’s vision is to establish terahertz as the premier imaging and inspection tool for the 21st century, comparable to the enormous success of X-Ray the latter half of the last century, and more recently ultrasound.

We are currently looking for an Application Scientist based Cambridge, UK.  

The ideal candidate will have;

An excellent technical background:
·         Good first degree in physics or chemistry
·         Ph.D. in a physical science 
·         With either three-years commercial experience or held a postdoctoral position for a similar period
·         A background in one or more of the following areas;

§  Spectroscopy
§  Terahertz imaging
§  Terahertz spectroscopy
§  Optical coherence tomography
§  Ultrasound
§  Multi-spectral imaging

Skills in the following are desirable:
·         Background in spectroscopy instrumentation
·         MATLAB programming skills

Also, software skills required include in:
·         Office/Word/Excel

Other skills, experience and characteristics required
·         Technical background
·         Collaborative team player
·         Proactive mind-set
·         Highly organised
·         Attention to detail
·         Being able to work with minimal supervision
·         A valid driving licence is required
The key tasks they will engage in:
·         Providing technical advice to customers at both pre- and post-sales stages
·         Providing support and explanation to customers by email, by phone and in person
·         Develop technical proposals, quotations, and orders
·         Generate and approve pricing, schedule and product offering for quotation to prospective customers
  • Plan and direct marketing activity such as marketing strategy development, marketing materials generation, tradeshow support and lead generation activities
  • Provide technical training to employees of our customers
·         Conducting training courses
·         Attending conference and technical meetings
·         Supporting the customer by addressing their requirements in a wide variety of application areas
·         Maintain technical service database and reference files, documenting response times and delivering on commitments made to customer
·         Communicate customer and product feedback to Marketing and R&D to further improve quality and the customer experience
·         Contribute to technical publications, application notes and SOPs.
·         First point of contact for customer feedback
·         The candidate will be expected to travel up 50% of their time world-wide.

To apply for this vacancy, please send your CV and a support letter in their application detailing why they are right for the job.  These should be sent

TeraView offers flexible working hours with an excellent salary and benefits package, along with the opportunity for highly-motivated staff to work together in a friendly, intellectually stimulating and challenging environment.

We are an equal opportunities employer and pride ourselves on our diverse workforce.  For further information and background on the company, please visit our website on:

No agencies please.

Monday, 12 June 2017

TeraView is recruiting

Physics of Electromagnetic Modelling and High-Frequency Devices

TeraView Ltd is the world’s first and leading provider of Terahertz solutions to companies in a variety of industries. TeraView was created in 2001 from pioneering work carried out between the University of Cambridge and the Toshiba Corporation with a vision is to establish Terahertz as the premier imaging tool for the 21st century, used to improve the products and process of TeraView’s customers.

The Company is currently recruiting PhD level candidates to work on the following topics;
  • Extension of existing electromagnetic simulations of the propagation of Terahertz pulses through advanced integrated circuits and devices developed by the semiconductor industry. This work will involve investigating specific customer designs for integrated circuits, and liaising with the customers to improve the design and processing of these devices.
  • Development of a new generation of Terahertz emitters and detectors for high-frequency imaging and spectroscopic applications, with the goal to improve the throughput, resolution and sensitivity of Terahertz sensing.

The successful applicants will have demonstrated initiative, software/algorithmic development skills and a good understanding of the physics of high-frequency devices. The ability to present well at conferences and represent the Company is paramount.

TeraView offers an excellent package of salary and employee benefits. We are an equal opportunities employer and pride ourselves on our diverse workforce.

For further information and background on the company, please visit our website

To apply for this position your CV, with full career and publication details, should be sent to Mr John Westgate,

No agencies please.

Tuesday, 6 June 2017

Methanol-Water-Dependent Structural Changes of Regenerated Silk Fibroin Probed by Terahertz Spectroscopy

Wu, Xu, Xiaodong Wu, Bin Yang, Min Shao, and Guojin Feng. "EXPRESS: Methanol-Water-Dependent Structural Changes of Regenerated Silk Fibroin Probed by Terahertz Spectroscopy." Applied Spectroscopy (2017): 0003702817706368.


The mechanism of β-sheet crystallization in silk fibroin remains unclear, due to the 
incomplete information of protein assembly and structural state. The emerging terahertz 
(THz) spectroscopy (< 10THz) has been taken as an important tool to detect new aspects of biomolecular structure and is used for the first time to analyze the methanol–water (MeOH) induced structural changes of Bombyx mori silk fibroin. Mid-infrared spectroscopy (IR) and ...

for full paper see

... for 3 min. Lower-frequency THz spectra (below 3 THz) were collected using two THz time-domain spectroscopies: CIP-TDS (Daheng Optics Co.) and TPS spectra 3000 (TeraViewLtd.). In the ... The data was collected by the software Spectra 1.17.6 (TeraView Ltd.). ...

for more information about TeraView see

Monday, 5 June 2017

Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy for Studying Absorbable Hemostats

Nedvedova, Marie, Vojtech Kresalek, Zdenek Adamik, and Ivo Provazník. "Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy for Studying Absorbable Hemostats." IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology 6, no. 3 (2016): 420-426.
This study deals with the kinetics of absorbable hemostats used for supporting the hemostasis and wound closure during surgical intervention. There are several types of hemostats of different composition therefore with different mechanism of action. Here, terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy is used for studying the absorption kinetics of the reactions between the hemostatic and the physiological saline solution (PSS). The reactions correspond with the changes of the THz radiation response measured in time. These time dependences are analyzed to find time constants for mathematical description of the hemostatic kinetics and the significant differences among all types of hemostats are found. The physiological saline solution is replaced by human blood in the additional measurement. Based on the results, we can compare the reaction rate of different types of hemostats that could be beneficial in the surgery practice.
... THz time-do- main spectroscopy system TPS Spectra 3000 by TeraView Ltd. was used as an analyzing device in this experiment. ... As an investigated parameter, the refractive index of the sample was calculated using the original Teraview software [27]. ...
for more information about TeraView see

Sunday, 4 June 2017

Wideband terahertz band reflection and diffuse scattering measurements for beyond 5g indoor wireless networks

Kokkoniemi, Joonas, Vitaly Petrov, Dmitri Moltchanov, Janne Lehtomaeki, Yevgeni Koucheryavy, and Markku Juntti. "Wideband terahertz band reflection and diffuse scattering measurements for beyond 5g indoor wireless networks." In European Wireless 2016; 22th European Wireless Conference; Proceedings of, pp. 1-6. VDE, 2016.

Measurement results on rough surface scattering on common indoor materials in the terahertz (THz) band from 100 GHz to 4 THz are reported. The measurements were made using THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS)-based measurement device in multiple transmitter and receiver angles for five different materials: aluminium, glass, plastic, hardboard, and concrete. The main interest of this paper is in the frequency domain characteristics of the scattering and reflections on different materials from the viewpoint of possible non-line-of-sight (NLOS) communications in the THz band. The measurements show that the specular reflection component always dominates, even in the case of rather rough concrete sample. The main reason for this is the vast bandwidth: the lower frequencies tend to have strong specular component even if the higher frequencies would diffuse on surface of the material. The results also show that the diffuse scattering field is very weak in comparison to the specular direction. However, it is still theoretically high enough to enable the NLOS links on short distances. The results clearly show that the NLOS paths, especially, reflected paths, can be used for communications in the THz band.

... The measurement device was TeraView TeraPulse 4000, which is based on terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), in which the full time domain detection window is composed of multiple short time duration windows, determining also the resolution time of the full time ...

For full paper see

for more information about TeraView see

Saturday, 3 June 2017

Non-destructive testing of polyethylene composite by terahertz radiation

Palka, Norbert, Wiesław Ciurapinski, Janusz Wrobel, Leon Jodlowski, Mieczyslaw Szustakowski, Danuta Miedzinska, Roman Gielata, and Rene Beigang. "Non-destructive testing of polyethylene composite by terahertz radiation." In Microwave, Radar and Wireless Communications (MIKON), 2016 21st International Conference on, pp. 1-4. IEEE, 2016.

Image result for Palka, NorbertWe report on the terahertz time-of-flight analysis of an internal structure of an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) composite material, which is based on the BT10-tape from Dyneema®. This type of composite is very hard and resistant and therefore it is often used to manufacture personal armors such as bulletproof vests and helmets. The multilayer structure of the UHMWPE composite was investigated by means of a raster scanning time domain spectroscopy technique in a reflection configuration. The mechanism of the formation of many shifted in time THz pulses (reflected from the internal layers of the sample) originates from the periodic modulation of the refractive index along the propagation of the radiation. This modulation is connected with alternate layers of fibers, each having different direction (perpendicular to each other one). As a result, the detailed three dimensional profile of the 20-mm-thick sample was obtained. Moreover, it is also possible to identify internal defects i.e. delaminations in the internal structure of this composite material.

... lll. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP TPI Imaga measuring unit from TeraView was used for raster scanning of the sampIe placed on the XY servo- motorized stage with real-time positioning. ... The Volume Viewer software from Teraview allows us to see the 3D image of the sampIe (Fig. ...

For full paper see

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Friday, 2 June 2017

Terahertz scanning techniques for paint thickness on CFRP composite solid laminates

Im, Kwang-Hee, In-Young Yang, Sun-Kyu Kim, Jong-An Jung, Young-Tae Cho, and Yong-Deuck Woo. "Terahertz scanning techniques for paint thickness on CFRP composite solid laminates." Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 30, no. 10 (2016): 4413-4416.


Terahertz ray (T-ray) scanning applications are promising tools. The use of T-ray for nondestructive evaluation was investigated on composite materials. In this characterization procedure, electromagnetic properties, such as the refractive index, were analyzed. The estimates of properties are in good agreement with known data. We successfully demonstrated the characteristics of T-ray propagating through Carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites to acquire the refractive index by using the characterized material properties. A T-ray technique was developed for measuring paint thickness on CFRP laminates. Good results were obtained from tests performed on standard paint samples with thickness starting from approximately 100 μm. The method was based on reflection mode measurement with time of flight. Another method developed for measuring paint thickness using resonance frequencies was utilized to determine paint thickness on composite laminates. The paint thickness deduced from resonance frequencies agrees well with the result obtained directly from time-domain echoes.

for full paper see

for more information about TeraView see

Thursday, 1 June 2017

3D printed diffractive terahertz lenses

Furlan, Walter D., Vicente Ferrando, Juan A. Monsoriu, Przemysław Zagrajek, Elżbieta Czerwińska, and Mieczysław Szustakowski. "3D printed diffractive terahertz lenses." Optics letters 41, no. 8 (2016): 1748-1751.

A 3D printer was used to realize custom-made diffractive THz lenses. After testing several materials, phase binary lenses with periodic and aperiodic radial profiles were designed and constructed in polyamide material to work at 0.625 THz. The nonconventional focusing properties of such lenses were assessed by computing and measuring their axial point spread function (PSF). Our results demonstrate that inexpensive 3D printed THz diffractive lenses can be reliably used in focusing and imaging THz systems. Diffractive THz lenses with unprecedented features, such as extended depth of focus or bifocalization, have been demonstrate.

... In particular, we measured their absorption coefficient and refractive index in the 0.1–2.0 THz frequency range, using time domain spectroscopy (TDS) [20]. A commercial equipment, TPS Spectra 3000 (Teraview, Ltd., Cambridge, UK), was used to this end. ...

Full paper can be found at

for more information about TeraView see

Wednesday, 31 May 2017

A Review of Disintegration Mechanisms and Measurement Techniques

Markl, Daniel, and J. Axel Zeitler. "A Review of Disintegration Mechanisms and Measurement Techniques." Pharmaceutical Research 34, no. 5 (2017): 890-917.


Pharmaceutical solid dosage forms (tablets or capsules) are the predominant form to administer active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to the patient. Tablets are typically powder compacts consisting of several different excipients in addition to the API. Excipients are added to a formulation in order to achieve the desired fill weight of a dosage form, to improve the processability or to affect the drug release behaviour in the body. These complex porous systems undergo different mechanisms when they come in contact with physiological fluids. The performance of a drug is primarily influenced by the disintegration and dissolution behaviour of the powder compact. The disintegration process is specifically critical for immediate-release dosage forms. Its mechanisms and the factors impacting disintegration are discussed and methods used to study the disintegration in-situ are presented. This review further summarises mathematical models used to simulate disintegration phenomena and to predict drug release kinetics.

For full paper see

for more information about TeraView see

Tuesday, 30 May 2017

Recent pharmaceutical papers using TeraView’s instruments

Sibik, Juraj, and J. Axel Zeitler. "Direct measurement of molecular mobility and crystallisation of amorphous pharmaceuticals using terahertz spectroscopy." Advanced drug delivery reviews 100 (2016): 147-157.

Markl, D., Sauerwein, J., Goodwin, D. J., van den Ban, S., & Zeitler, J. A. (2017). Non-destructive determination of disintegration time and dissolution in immediate release tablets by terahertz transmission measurements. Pharmaceutical Research34(5), 1012-1022.

Markl, Daniel, J. Axel Zeitler, Cecilie Rasch, Maria Høtoft Michaelsen, Anette Müllertz, Jukka Rantanen, Thomas Rades, and Johan Bøtker. "Analysis of 3D Prints by X-ray Computed Microtomography and Terahertz Pulsed Imaging." Pharmaceutical Research (2016): 1-16.

Zeitler, J. Axel. "Pharmaceutical terahertz spectroscopy and imaging." In Analytical Techniques in the Pharmaceutical Sciences, pp. 171-222. Springer New York, 2016.
Sibik, Juraj, and J. Axel Zeitler. "Study of disordered materials by terahertz spectroscopy." Disordered Pharmaceutical Materials (2016).

Bawuah, Prince, Tuomas Ervasti, Nicholas Tan, J. Axel Zeitler, Jarkko Ketolainen, and Kai-Erik Peiponen. "Noninvasive porosity measurement of biconvex tablets using terahertz pulses." International journal of pharmaceutics 509, no. 1 (2016): 439-443.

Ruggiero, Michael T., Juraj Sibik, Roberto Orlando, J. Axel Zeitler, and Timothy M. Korter. "Inside Cover: Measuring the Elasticity of PolylProline Helices with Terahertz Spectroscopy (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 24/2016)." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 55, no. 24 (2016): 6796-6796.

Sibik, J., and J. Axel Zeitler. "Terahertz response of organic amorphous systems: experimental concerns and perspectives." Philosophical Magazine 96, no. 7-9 (2016): 842-853.

Markl, D., Wang, P., Ridgway, C., Karttunen, A. P., Chakraborty, M., Bawuah, P., ... & Zeitler, J. A. (2017). Characterization of the Pore Structure of Functionalized Calcium Carbonate Tablets by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy and X-Ray Computed Microtomography. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Ruggiero, Michael T., and J. Axel Zeitler. "Resolving the Origins of Crystalline Anharmonicity Using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy and ab Initio Simulations." The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 120, no. 45 (2016): 11733-11739.

Bawuah, Prince, Nicholas Tan, Samuel Nana A. Tweneboah, Tuomas Ervasti, J. Axel Zeitler, Jarkko Ketolainen, and Kai-Erik Peiponen. "Terahertz study on porosity and mass fraction of active pharmaceutical ingredient of pharmaceutical tablets." European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 105 (2016): 122-133.

Ruggiero, Michael T., Juraj Sibik, J. Axel Zeitler, and Timothy M. Korter. "Examination of L-Glutamic Acid Polymorphs by Solid-State Density Functional Theory and Terahertz Spectroscopy." The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 120, no. 38 (2016): 7490-7495.

Bawuah, Prince, Mousumi Chakraborty, Tuomas Ervasti, J. Axel Zeitler, Jarkko Ketolainen, Patrick AC Gane, and Kai-Erik Peiponen. "A structure parameter for porous pharmaceutical tablets obtained with the aid of Wiener bounds for effective permittivity and terahertz time-delay measurement." International journal of pharmaceutics 506, no. 1 (2016): 87-92.

Chakraborty, Mousumi, Prince Bawuah, Nicholas Tan, Tuomas Ervasti, Pertti Pääkkönen, J. Axel Zeitler, Jarkko Ketolainen, and Kai-Erik Peiponen. "On the correlation of effective terahertz refractive index and average surface roughness of pharmaceutical tablets." Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves 37, no. 8 (2016): 776-785.

Ruggiero, Michael T., Juraj Sibik, and J. Axel Zeitler. "The influence of intermolecular forces on the terahertz response of amorphous materials." In Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz waves (IRMMW-THz), 2016 41st International Conference on, pp. 1-2. IEEE, 2016.

Ridgway, Cathy, Prince Bawuah, Daniel Markl, J. Axel Zeitler, Jarkko Ketolainen, Kai-Erik Peiponen, and Patrick Gane. "On the role of API in determining porosity, pore structure and bulk modulus of the skeletal material in pharmaceutical tablets formed with MCC excipient." International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2017).

Markl, Daniel, and J. Axel Zeitler. "A Review of Disintegration Mechanisms and Measurement Techniques." Pharmaceutical Research 34, no. 5 (2017): 890-917.

Monday, 29 May 2017

Characterization of prospective explosive materials using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

Palka, Norbert, Mateusz Szala, and Elzbieta Czerwinska. "Characterization of prospective explosive materials using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy." Applied optics 55, no. 17 (2016): 4575-4583.

We investigated six prospective explosive materials in the terahertz range using time-domain spectroscopy. A family of energetic azotetrazolate salts and two caged nitramines were studied. A number of distinct spectral features were observed in the 0.8–3.2 THz frequency range. In transmission configuration in ambient temperature, we determined the absorption coefficient and the refractive index of the materials, which were compressed as pellets. Because the visibility of some absorption peaks was not clear, additionally we performed characterization of these materials in a temperature range from -175 C to 0 C which resulted in highlighting peaks with low amplitude. Because the considered explosives are insensitive to compression, we also measured them using an attenuated total reflection (ATR) technique, in which sample preparation is easier than with pressed pellets. The absorption peaks measured by ATR agree well with those determined in transmission. This suggests that ATR also can be used for identification of these classes of materials. 

... This pulse has a broad spectrum, which is used for spectroscopic measurements. The commercially available TDS-based TPS 3000 (TeraView) spectrometer in basic configuration worked in the transmission mode in ambient temperature. ...

for full paper see

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Sunday, 28 May 2017

Terahertz transmission vs reflection imaging and model-based characterization for excised breast carcinomas

Bowman, Tyler, Magda El-Shenawee, and Lucas K. Campbell. "Terahertz transmission vs reflection imaging and model-based characterization for excised breast carcinomas."  Biomedical Optics Express 7, no. 9 (2016): 3756-3783.
This work presents experimental and analytical comparison of terahertz transmission and reflection imaging modes for assessing breast carcinoma in excised paraffin-embedded human breast tissue. Modeling for both transmission and reflection imaging is developed. The refractive index and absorption coefficient of the tissue samples are obtained. The reflection measurements taken at the system’s fixed oblique angle of 30° are shown to be a hybridization of TE and TM modes. The models are validated with transmission spectroscopy at fixed points on fresh bovine muscle and fat tissues. Images based on the calculated absorption coefficient and index of refraction of bovine tissue are successfully compared with the terahertz magnitude and phase measured in the reflection mode. The validated techniques are extended to 20 and 30 μm slices of fixed human lobular carcinoma and infiltrating ductal carcinoma mounted on polystyrene microscope slides in order to investigate the terahertz differentiation of the carcinoma with non-cancerous tissue. Both transmission and reflection imaging show clear differentiation in carcinoma versus healthy tissue. However, when using the reflection mode, in the calculation of the thin tissue properties, the absorption is shown to be sensitive to small phase variations that arise due to deviations in slide and tissue thickness and non-ideal tissue adhesion. On the other hand, the results show that the transmission mode is much less sensitive to these phase variations. The results also demonstrate that reflection imaging provides higher resolution and more clear margins between cancerous and fibroglandular regions, cancerous and fatty regions, and fibroglandular and fatty tissue regions. In addition, more features consistent with high power pathology images are exhibited in the reflection mode images.

... work. 2. Methodology. 2.1 Pulsed terahertz system. The measurements in this work make use of the TPS 3000 pulsed terahertz imaging and spectroscopy system from TeraVIEW, Ltd. The system diagram can be seen in Fig. 1 ...

for full paper see
for more information about TeraView see

Saturday, 27 May 2017

Frequency domain penetration loss in the terahertz band

Kokkoniemi, Joonas, Janne Lehtomäki, Vitaly Petrov, Dmitri Moltchanov, and Markku Juntti. "Frequency domain penetration loss in the terahertz band." In Millimeter Waves (GSMM) & ESA Workshop on Millimetre-Wave Technology and Applications, 2016 Global Symposium on, pp. 1-4. IEEE, 2016.

Results on penetration loss measurements in the THz frequencies between 0.1-2 THz are reported. The measurements were conducted with time domain spectroscopy using the TeraView TeraPulse 4000 measurement equipment. We concentrate on the frequency-dependent penetration characteristics of various materials typical for indoor environments, providing both qualitative and quantitative assessment. The results show that the lower end of the THz band (<; 0.5 THz) suffers only modest loss in comparison to the higher frequencies. For the materials considered in this paper, plastic, glass and hard-board, the exact penetration properties are both frequency- and material-dependent. The incident angle to the material increases the penetration loss through increased path length inside the material. The exact values of these losses are provided.

... The measurements were conducted with time domain spectroscopy using the TeraView TeraPulse 4000 measurement equipment. ... II. MEASUREMENT SETUP The measurements were made with the TeraView TeraPulse 4000 device. ...

for full paper see

for more information about TeraView see